Jórunn skáldamaer, 10th century
Art by Mikaela Bergquist (tumblr)
Jórunn skáldmær (Jórunn the poet-maiden) was a Norwegian skáld.  Like the bards of Celtic courts, skálds were employed by Scandinavian and Icelandic nobles to compose complicated verse in praise of their patron.  Skálds also often served as advisers.  
Jórunn is the only known named female skáld who seems to have filled the role of adviser at court.  Only a single partial composition of Jórunn’s survives.  Two stanzas and three half-stanzas of Sendibítr (“Biting message”) were recorded by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson approximately 300 years after the initial composition.  

Jórunn skáldamaer, 10th century

Art by Mikaela Bergquist (tumblr)

Jórunn skáldmær (Jórunn the poet-maiden) was a Norwegian skáld.  Like the bards of Celtic courts, skálds were employed by Scandinavian and Icelandic nobles to compose complicated verse in praise of their patron.  Skálds also often served as advisers

Jórunn is the only known named female skáld who seems to have filled the role of adviser at court.  Only a single partial composition of Jórunn’s survives.  Two stanzas and three half-stanzas of Sendibítr (“Biting message”) were recorded by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson approximately 300 years after the initial composition.  

Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians
Art by Mariel Black (tumblr, website, blog, twitter)
Æthelflæd was the daughter of Alfred, King of Wessex, and the wife of Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians.  Mercia was an independently ruled subkingdom of Wessex and the two stood together in opposition to the Viking invasions of England.
Æthelflæd wielded political power during her marriage and after the death of her husband In 911, she became the leader of the Mercians.  Æthelflæd worked with her brother Edward of Wessex to reconquer parts of England controlled by the Danes. She personally led Merican troops in successful conquests of Derby and Leicester.  Æthelflæd also built a series of thirteen fortresses across Merica from Warwick to Runcorn to Chirbury. 
Æthelflæd died in 918 and she was briefly succeeded by her daughter Ælfwynn until Edward deposed her and took control of Mercia.
How to pronounce Æthelflæd

Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians

Art by Mariel Black (tumblr, website, blog, twitter)

Æthelflæd was the daughter of Alfred, King of Wessex, and the wife of Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians.  Mercia was an independently ruled subkingdom of Wessex and the two stood together in opposition to the Viking invasions of England.

Æthelflæd wielded political power during her marriage and after the death of her husband In 911, she became the leader of the Mercians.  Æthelflæd worked with her brother Edward of Wessex to reconquer parts of England controlled by the Danes. She personally led Merican troops in successful conquests of Derby and Leicester.  Æthelflæd also built a series of thirteen fortresses across Merica from Warwick to Runcorn to Chirbury. 

Æthelflæd died in 918 and she was briefly succeeded by her daughter Ælfwynn until Edward deposed her and took control of Mercia.

How to pronounce Æthelflæd

Irene of Athens (circa 752-803)
Art by Annie Wilkinson (tumblr)
After the death of her husband Leo IV in 780, Irene ruled the Byzantine Empire as regent for her son Constantine VI.  Almost immediately Irene’s rule was challenged by her husband’s brother. She thwarted the attempt by forcibly ordaining her brother-in-law as a priest which removed him from the line of succession. 
As empress regent, Irene had a major impact on the Eastern Orthodox Church.  In 787 Irene convened the Second Council of Nicaea which revived the veneration of icons (banned by the Eastern Orthodox Church in 730) and reunited the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church.
As Constantine matured, he began to resent his mother’s control.  Between 790 and 797 Constantine attempted to overthrow Irene, but he was an ineffective leader.  In 797 Irene deposed and blinded her only child.  She ruled alone until 802 when she was overthrown by her finance minister Nikephoros.  Irene died in exile a year later.

Irene of Athens (circa 752-803)

Art by Annie Wilkinson (tumblr)

After the death of her husband Leo IV in 780, Irene ruled the Byzantine Empire as regent for her son Constantine VI.  Almost immediately Irene’s rule was challenged by her husband’s brother. She thwarted the attempt by forcibly ordaining her brother-in-law as a priest which removed him from the line of succession. 

As empress regent, Irene had a major impact on the Eastern Orthodox Church.  In 787 Irene convened the Second Council of Nicaea which revived the veneration of icons (banned by the Eastern Orthodox Church in 730) and reunited the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church.

As Constantine matured, he began to resent his mother’s control.  Between 790 and 797 Constantine attempted to overthrow Irene, but he was an ineffective leader.  In 797 Irene deposed and blinded her only child.  She ruled alone until 802 when she was overthrown by her finance minister Nikephoros.  Irene died in exile a year later.

wilsonlibunc:

“The Girl Reserves of the Y.W.C.A." Published by the U.S. Committee on Public Information, Division of Pictorial Publicity, ca, 1914-1918. From the Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, via Documenting the American South, North Carolinians and the Great War.

wilsonlibunc:

The Girl Reserves of the Y.W.C.A." Published by the U.S. Committee on Public Information, Division of Pictorial Publicity, ca, 1914-1918. From the Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, via Documenting the American South, North Carolinians and the Great War.

Comtessa de Dia, 12th century
Art by Abi Plantainfish (tumblr)
Comtessa de Dia, also known as Beatriz de Dia, was a trobairitz or female troubadour.  Troubadours were medieval poet-musicians from Occitania, a region encompassing southern France as well as parts of Italy and Spain.  Troubadours composed secular ballads in Occitan, a Romance language native to the area.  Their poems could be intellectual, humorous, and even vulgar, but most focused on courtly love.
A short biographical sketch from the 13th century reads “The Countess of Dia was the wife of Lord Guillem de Poitou, a beautiful and good lady.  And she fell in love with Lord Raimbaut d’Aurenga [brother of the trobairitz Tibors de Sarenom] and composed many good songs about him.”  This biography is difficult to match to the historical record as Guillem de Poitou was not the Count of Dia.  The Count of Dia did have two daughters who could have been referred to as the Countess of Dia, but they reached adulthood after the death of Raimbaut d’Aurenga.  Various alternatives have been suggested for the husband and lover of the trobairitz Comtessa de Dia, but the only agreed upon information is that she was a married noblewoman in love with another troubadour.
A total of four poems written by the Comtessa survive, a low number when compared to Raimbaut d’Aurenga’s forty poems, but such a lack of surviving manuscripts is not unusual for the period. Only ten troubadour cansos survive with their music intact and the Comtessa’s A chantar m’er de so qu’eu no volria is the lone surviving example written by a woman. Numerous recordings of A chantar m’er de so qu’eu no volria are available on youtube. 
Although there is very little information available on the life of Beatriz de Dia, she inspired a novel by the East German writer Irmtraud Morgner.  The original title of the novel is Leben und Abenteuer der Trobadora Beatriz nach Zeugnissen ihrer Spielfrau Laura.  The book is available in English under the title The Life and Adventures of Trobadora Beatrice as Chronicled by Her Minstrel Laura.

Comtessa de Dia, 12th century

Art by Abi Plantainfish (tumblr)

Comtessa de Dia, also known as Beatriz de Dia, was a trobairitz or female troubadour.  Troubadours were medieval poet-musicians from Occitania, a region encompassing southern France as well as parts of Italy and Spain.  Troubadours composed secular ballads in Occitan, a Romance language native to the area.  Their poems could be intellectual, humorous, and even vulgar, but most focused on courtly love.

A short biographical sketch from the 13th century reads “The Countess of Dia was the wife of Lord Guillem de Poitou, a beautiful and good lady.  And she fell in love with Lord Raimbaut d’Aurenga [brother of the trobairitz Tibors de Sarenomand composed many good songs about him.”  This biography is difficult to match to the historical record as Guillem de Poitou was not the Count of Dia.  The Count of Dia did have two daughters who could have been referred to as the Countess of Dia, but they reached adulthood after the death of Raimbaut d’Aurenga.  Various alternatives have been suggested for the husband and lover of the trobairitz Comtessa de Dia, but the only agreed upon information is that she was a married noblewoman in love with another troubadour.

A total of four poems written by the Comtessa survive, a low number when compared to Raimbaut d’Aurenga’s forty poems, but such a lack of surviving manuscripts is not unusual for the period. Only ten troubadour cansos survive with their music intact and the Comtessa’s A chantar m’er de so qu’eu no volria is the lone surviving example written by a woman. Numerous recordings of A chantar m’er de so qu’eu no volria are available on youtube. 

Although there is very little information available on the life of Beatriz de Dia, she inspired a novel by the East German writer Irmtraud Morgner.  The original title of the novel is Leben und Abenteuer der Trobadora Beatriz nach Zeugnissen ihrer Spielfrau Laura.  The book is available in English under the title The Life and Adventures of Trobadora Beatrice as Chronicled by Her Minstrel Laura.

Jadwiga of Poland (1373/4-1399)
Art by Aonasis (tumblr)
Jadwiga was the daughter of Elizabeth of Bosnia and Louis the Great of Hungary.  At the age of ten, she was crowned King of Poland.  Jadwiga was crowned king rather than queen because although Polish law had no provision for a queen regent, the law did not state a king must be male.
In 1386, Jadwiga married Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania, uniting the two regions.  Prior to their marriage, Lithuania was the last pagan state in Europe.  As part of the marriage agreement, Jogaila was baptized as a Roman Catholic and took the name Władysław.  Mass baptisms and church building followed across Lithuania.  In 1389, Pope Urban VI recognized Lithuania as a Roman Catholic country, although paganism continued among the common people for decades.
Władysław and Jadwiga were co-regents, but Władysław is believed to have overseen most of the political responsibilities with two notable exceptions.  In 1387, Jadwiga led a successful, mostly peaceful campaign to recover the province of Halych from Hungary.  In 1390, she personally negotiated with the Teutonic Order for a cessation of hostilities, although the problem was not fully resolved until 1410.
Jadwiga focused most of her efforts on cultural and charitable works.  She donated all of her jewelry to the failing Kraków Academy, Poland’s first university which was then only 35 years old.  Thanks in part to this generous donation, the university flourished and set up Europe’s first independent chairs in mathematics and astronomy.  Today Kraków Academy is known as Jagiellonian University in honor of the royal couple.
On June 22, 1399 Jadwiga delivered her only child, a daughter named Elizabeth Bonifacia.  Both mother and child died within a month.  The two were buried in a single casket at Wawel Cathedral in Kraków.  Although Jadwiga’s death undermined Jogaila’s position as King of Poland, he retained the throne until his death 35 years later at which point his son by his second wife took power.   
Jadwiga was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1997.  She is the patron saint of queens.

Jadwiga of Poland (1373/4-1399)

Art by Aonasis (tumblr)

Jadwiga was the daughter of Elizabeth of Bosnia and Louis the Great of Hungary.  At the age of ten, she was crowned King of Poland.  Jadwiga was crowned king rather than queen because although Polish law had no provision for a queen regent, the law did not state a king must be male.

In 1386, Jadwiga married Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania, uniting the two regions.  Prior to their marriage, Lithuania was the last pagan state in Europe.  As part of the marriage agreement, Jogaila was baptized as a Roman Catholic and took the name Władysław.  Mass baptisms and church building followed across Lithuania.  In 1389, Pope Urban VI recognized Lithuania as a Roman Catholic country, although paganism continued among the common people for decades.

Władysław and Jadwiga were co-regents, but Władysław is believed to have overseen most of the political responsibilities with two notable exceptions.  In 1387, Jadwiga led a successful, mostly peaceful campaign to recover the province of Halych from Hungary.  In 1390, she personally negotiated with the Teutonic Order for a cessation of hostilities, although the problem was not fully resolved until 1410.

Jadwiga focused most of her efforts on cultural and charitable works.  She donated all of her jewelry to the failing Kraków Academy, Poland’s first university which was then only 35 years old.  Thanks in part to this generous donation, the university flourished and set up Europe’s first independent chairs in mathematics and astronomy.  Today Kraków Academy is known as Jagiellonian University in honor of the royal couple.

On June 22, 1399 Jadwiga delivered her only child, a daughter named Elizabeth Bonifacia.  Both mother and child died within a month.  The two were buried in a single casket at Wawel Cathedral in Kraków.  Although Jadwiga’s death undermined Jogaila’s position as King of Poland, he retained the throne until his death 35 years later at which point his son by his second wife took power.   

Jadwiga was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1997.  She is the patron saint of queens.

In the late twelfth or early thirteenth century a psalter was made at a Benedictine abbey in Augsburg, Germany.  The Romanesque illuminations decorating the manuscript are believed to have been created by three or four different artists.  One illumination in particular stands out, a young girl in secular dress swinging from the letter Q.  The name “Claricia” is written by her head.  Art historian Dorothy E. Miner suggested that it was self-portrait of a lay student at the convent. 
The Claricia Psalter is held by the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore (tumblr), but it is not currently on view.  If you’re in the Baltimore area and are interested in medieval manuscripts, the current (free) exhibit at the Walters Art Museum is “Seeing Music in Medieval Manuscripts.”  The exhibit runs through October 12, 2014.
Image Source: The Walters Art Museum (link) 
Related: Claricia Draw a Cool Chick from History post

In the late twelfth or early thirteenth century a psalter was made at a Benedictine abbey in Augsburg, Germany.  The Romanesque illuminations decorating the manuscript are believed to have been created by three or four different artists.  One illumination in particular stands out, a young girl in secular dress swinging from the letter Q.  The name “Claricia” is written by her head.  Art historian Dorothy E. Miner suggested that it was self-portrait of a lay student at the convent. 

The Claricia Psalter is held by the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore (tumblr), but it is not currently on view.  If you’re in the Baltimore area and are interested in medieval manuscripts, the current (free) exhibit at the Walters Art Museum is “Seeing Music in Medieval Manuscripts.”  The exhibit runs through October 12, 2014.

Image Source: The Walters Art Museum (link

Related: Claricia Draw a Cool Chick from History post

Claricia c. 1200
Art by Z Akhmetova (tumblr)
In the late twelfth or early thirteenth century a psalter was made at a Benedictine abbey in Augsburg, Germany.  The Romanesque illuminations decorating the manuscript are believed to have been created by three or four different artists.  One illumination in particular stands out, a young girl in secular dress swinging from the letter Q.  The name “Claricia” is written by her head.  Art historian Dorothy E. Miner suggested that it was self-portrait of a lay student at the convent. 
The Claricia Psalter is held by the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore (tumblr), but it is not currently on view.  If you’re in the Baltimore area and are interested in medieval manuscripts, the current (free) exhibit at the Walters Art Museum is “Seeing Music in Medieval Manuscripts.”  The exhibit runs through October 12, 2014.
Related: Cool Chicks from History post of the inspiration image (image via the Walters Art Museum)  

Claricia c. 1200

Art by Z Akhmetova (tumblr)

In the late twelfth or early thirteenth century a psalter was made at a Benedictine abbey in Augsburg, Germany.  The Romanesque illuminations decorating the manuscript are believed to have been created by three or four different artists.  One illumination in particular stands out, a young girl in secular dress swinging from the letter Q.  The name “Claricia” is written by her head.  Art historian Dorothy E. Miner suggested that it was self-portrait of a lay student at the convent. 

The Claricia Psalter is held by the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore (tumblr), but it is not currently on view.  If you’re in the Baltimore area and are interested in medieval manuscripts, the current (free) exhibit at the Walters Art Museum is “Seeing Music in Medieval Manuscripts.”  The exhibit runs through October 12, 2014.

Related: Cool Chicks from History post of the inspiration image (image via the Walters Art Museum)  

Hemma or Emma of Gurk (c. 980-1045)
Art by Selen (tumblr)
The daughter of a noble Slovenian family, Hemma was orphaned at a young age.  She was raised at court by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II and Empress Cunigunde, both of whom were later canonized.  Hemma married Count Wilhelm of Friesach and bore two sons.  Throughout her life, Hemma was known for her piety and charity.  After the death of her husband and one of her sons, she devoted her entire life to God.  A wealthy widow, she funded ten churches in Carinthia and lived her last years in a convent.
Hemma was beatified in 1287 and canonized in 1938.  She is the patron saint of Carinthia and her feast day is June 27.  A pilgrimage route commemorating Hemma runs from Admont, Austria to Šentrupert, Slovenia.  

Hemma or Emma of Gurk (c. 980-1045)

Art by Selen (tumblr)

The daughter of a noble Slovenian family, Hemma was orphaned at a young age.  She was raised at court by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II and Empress Cunigunde, both of whom were later canonized.  Hemma married Count Wilhelm of Friesach and bore two sons.  Throughout her life, Hemma was known for her piety and charity.  After the death of her husband and one of her sons, she devoted her entire life to God.  A wealthy widow, she funded ten churches in Carinthia and lived her last years in a convent.

Hemma was beatified in 1287 and canonized in 1938.  She is the patron saint of Carinthia and her feast day is June 27.  A pilgrimage route commemorating Hemma runs from Admont, Austria to Šentrupert, Slovenia.  

greatestgeneration:

Many people are familiar with the topic of wartime Japanese American confinement on the Home Front that is featured in The National WWII Museum’s special exhibit, From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII Yet very few people think of the frozen islands of the Aleutians as a place of evacuation and battle. From June 1942 until August 1943, the Alaskan islands of Attu and Kiska were the site of fighting between the Allies and the Japanese, as well as the location of governmental round-ups of Native Alaskans who were then sent to camps in the Alaskan interior. Why were these people evacuated and why has it taken so long for their story to be told? How is their experience of confinement similar to and different from that of Japanese Americans on the U.S. mainland?

To learn more about this fascinating history, join K-12 Curriculum Coordinator Megan Byrnes at noon on Wednesday, August 6th, for the Lunchbox Lecture, “A Forgotten History: The Internment of Alaska Natives During World War II.”

Reblogging to signal boost

Cunigunde of Luxembourg (c. 975-1040)
Art by Anna Tucker (tumblr)
A descendent of Charlemagne, Cunigunde was the daughter of Siegfried of Luxembourg and Hedwig of Nordgau.  In 990 she married Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.  As the two were deeply religious and had no children, some historians have suggested that the marriage was sexually chaste.
In 1017 Cunigunde became gravely ill while at the imperial estates in Kaufungen.  The couple pledged that if Cunigunde survived, they would build a monastery on the site.  Cunigunde recovered and construction began on Kaufungen Abbey, a Benedictine convent, in 1018.  Henry died in 1024 and Cunigunde briefly served as Regent of the Empire before joining the sisters at Kaufungen Abbey.  She gave most of her wealth to charity before joining the convent and lived a very modest life until her death in 1040.
Cunigunde and Henry were both canonized as saints by the Roman Catholic Church.  Cunigunde is the patron saint of Luxembourg and her feast day is March 3.

Cunigunde of Luxembourg (c. 975-1040)

Art by Anna Tucker (tumblr)

A descendent of Charlemagne, Cunigunde was the daughter of Siegfried of Luxembourg and Hedwig of Nordgau.  In 990 she married Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.  As the two were deeply religious and had no children, some historians have suggested that the marriage was sexually chaste.

In 1017 Cunigunde became gravely ill while at the imperial estates in Kaufungen.  The couple pledged that if Cunigunde survived, they would build a monastery on the site.  Cunigunde recovered and construction began on Kaufungen Abbey, a Benedictine convent, in 1018.  Henry died in 1024 and Cunigunde briefly served as Regent of the Empire before joining the sisters at Kaufungen Abbey.  She gave most of her wealth to charity before joining the convent and lived a very modest life until her death in 1040.

Cunigunde and Henry were both canonized as saints by the Roman Catholic Church.  Cunigunde is the patron saint of Luxembourg and her feast day is March 3.

moriann said: Small correction to your recent post: it should be 'Eugeniusz Lokajski’s photo' -- 'Eugeniusza Lokajskiego' is the genitive form of the name, equivalent of adding the 's in English.

Fixed!

"We fought from house to house, street to street. We fought for every brick and stone."

Halina Junak, age 89, of Cleveland, who served as a courier for messages and supplies during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.

(Source: cleveland.com)

majarysuje:

70th Anniversary of Warsaw Uprising. We remember.

A little context for those who don’t know….
On August 1, 1944 the poorly armed Polish Home Army rose up against the Nazis and reclaimed Warsaw.  With almost no help from the Allied Powers, they held the city for sixty three days before they were forced to surrender.  After the Nazis recaptured Warsaw, they razed the city and deported the entire civilian population.  Most of the civilian population was released, but a significant minority was deported to the death camps.  
The art above is a reinterpretation of one of the most iconic images of the Warsaw Uprising- Eugeniusz Lokajski’s photo of Różyczka Goździewska (d. 1989), a little girl who volunteered at a Warsaw field hospital.  
The Warsaw Uprising is not the same thing as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.  The Warsaw Ghetto uprising took place in 1943, not 1944.

majarysuje:

70th Anniversary of Warsaw Uprising. We remember.

A little context for those who don’t know….

On August 1, 1944 the poorly armed Polish Home Army rose up against the Nazis and reclaimed Warsaw.  With almost no help from the Allied Powers, they held the city for sixty three days before they were forced to surrender.  After the Nazis recaptured Warsaw, they razed the city and deported the entire civilian population.  Most of the civilian population was released, but a significant minority was deported to the death camps.  

The art above is a reinterpretation of one of the most iconic images of the Warsaw Uprising- Eugeniusz Lokajski’s photo of Różyczka Goździewska (d. 1989), a little girl who volunteered at a Warsaw field hospital.  

The Warsaw Uprising is not the same thing as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.  The Warsaw Ghetto uprising took place in 1943, not 1944.

Tibors de Sarenom, 12th century
Art by Michelle Dee (tumblr, deviant art)
Tibors or Tiburge de Sarenom is the earliest know trobairitz or female troubadour.  Troubadours were medieval poet-musicians from Occitania, a region encompassing southern France as well as parts of Italy and Spain.  Troubadours composed secular ballads in Occitan, a Romance language native to the area.  Their poems could be intellectual, humorous, and even vulgar, but most focused on courtly love.
Many troubadours came from highborn families.  Tibors was the daughter of Guilhem d’Omelas and Tibors d’Aurenga, two nobles from southern France.  Her younger brother, Raimbaut d’Orange, was also a troubadour.  Tibors married twice and had three sons, one whom became a troubadour. 
Only a single stanza of Tibors work has survived:

Fair, sweet friend, I can truly tell you
I have never been without desire
since I met you and took you as a true lover,
nor has it happened that I lack the wish,
my fair sweet friend, to see you often,
nor has the season come when I repented,
nor has it happened, if you went off angry, 
nor that I knew joy until you had returned,
nor…
(Source: Songs of the Women Troubadours)

Tibors de Sarenom, 12th century

Art by Michelle Dee (tumblr, deviant art)

Tibors or Tiburge de Sarenom is the earliest know trobairitz or female troubadour.  Troubadours were medieval poet-musicians from Occitania, a region encompassing southern France as well as parts of Italy and Spain.  Troubadours composed secular ballads in Occitan, a Romance language native to the area.  Their poems could be intellectual, humorous, and even vulgar, but most focused on courtly love.

Many troubadours came from highborn families.  Tibors was the daughter of Guilhem d’Omelas and Tibors d’Aurenga, two nobles from southern France.  Her younger brother, Raimbaut d’Orange, was also a troubadour.  Tibors married twice and had three sons, one whom became a troubadour. 

Only a single stanza of Tibors work has survived:

Fair, sweet friend, I can truly tell you

I have never been without desire

since I met you and took you as a true lover,

nor has it happened that I lack the wish,

my fair sweet friend, to see you often,

nor has the season come when I repented,

nor has it happened, if you went off angry,

nor that I knew joy until you had returned,

nor…

(Source: Songs of the Women Troubadours)