Purim celebration in Tel Aviv, 1934.
Yemenite carnival queen representing Queen Esther.

Purim celebration in Tel Aviv, 1934.

Yemenite carnival queen representing Queen Esther.

congressarchives:

Mrs. E. Jackson wrote to the House Judiciary Committee the day after Bloody Sunday, March 7, 1965, in Selma, Alabama. She was reacting to scenes of police brutality during a voting rights march that many Americans witnessed on television news programs. The interlined handwriting in pencil is likely that of House Judiciary Chairman Emanuel Celler, who was Mrs. Jackson’s representative in Congress and an active supporter of voting rights legislation in the House. Interested in teaching or learning more about Voting Rights Act of 1965? Visit our web-lesson, Congress Protects the Right to Vote: the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Letter from Mrs. E. Jackson, 3/8/1965, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives (ARC 2173239)

Here’s my previous post about Bloody Sunday and the March from Selma to Montgomery for background information.  

Mrs. Lora Wagner
In 1914, Lora Wagner was among the small group of New York City teachers who challenged the policy against employing mothers as teachers (“mother-teachers”).  Lora worked right up until her due date, a violation of school rules, and gave birth just 13 hours after leaving school with plans to return to work within days.  She wrote to Mayor John Mitchel, asking him to advise the Board of Education to change the policy that automatically suspended female teachers after they gave birth. 
From The New York Times:

“The opponents of the mother-teacher have failed to prove that maternity makes her less efficient.  There should be one rule for all.  Only a few months ago we granted a year’s leave of absence to a teacher to go West to tend to a sick foster father… Is it a crime to have children?”
Dr. Ira S. Wile

A mass rally was held at Washington Irving High School featuring Charlotte Perkins Gimore, and Fola La Follete (daughter of Belle Case La Follette).  Although the mayor supported “mother-teachers” he did not overrule the school board.  It was not until 1915 when the courts ruled in favor of Bridget Peixotto that female teachers in New York City were allowed to give birth without being suspended for neglect of duties.
New York City then adopted a policy of mandatory two year maternity leave once a teacher realized she was pregnant.  This was a step forward in that it allowed women to return to their jobs unlike the earlier policy, although the leave was unpaid.  In 1937, the required leave was reduced to 18 months with the option to extend leave by choice or return early if economically necessary.  It wasn’t until a 1973 EEOC ruling that the length of maternity leave became a personal choice for teachers in New York City. 
Curiously, Lora Wagner seems to have managed to not take a two year maternity leave.  According to Kindergarten-Primary Magazine she was back at work in March 1915 after giving birth to her son Hans on October 31, 1914.  She taught at Tottenville High School on Staten Island and lived so close by that she would go home at recess to nurse.  Lora employed a nurse to watch her son, explaining “I love my work and would not give it up unless I had to.  I get along very well and am much better and happier than I would be doing housework, which I hate.”

Mrs. Lora Wagner

In 1914, Lora Wagner was among the small group of New York City teachers who challenged the policy against employing mothers as teachers (“mother-teachers”).  Lora worked right up until her due date, a violation of school rules, and gave birth just 13 hours after leaving school with plans to return to work within days.  She wrote to Mayor John Mitchel, asking him to advise the Board of Education to change the policy that automatically suspended female teachers after they gave birth.

From The New York Times:

“The opponents of the mother-teacher have failed to prove that maternity makes her less efficient.  There should be one rule for all.  Only a few months ago we granted a year’s leave of absence to a teacher to go West to tend to a sick foster father… Is it a crime to have children?”

Dr. Ira S. Wile

A mass rally was held at Washington Irving High School featuring Charlotte Perkins Gimore, and Fola La Follete (daughter of Belle Case La Follette).  Although the mayor supported “mother-teachers” he did not overrule the school board.  It was not until 1915 when the courts ruled in favor of Bridget Peixotto that female teachers in New York City were allowed to give birth without being suspended for neglect of duties.

New York City then adopted a policy of mandatory two year maternity leave once a teacher realized she was pregnant.  This was a step forward in that it allowed women to return to their jobs unlike the earlier policy, although the leave was unpaid.  In 1937, the required leave was reduced to 18 months with the option to extend leave by choice or return early if economically necessary.  It wasn’t until a 1973 EEOC ruling that the length of maternity leave became a personal choice for teachers in New York City.

Curiously, Lora Wagner seems to have managed to not take a two year maternity leave.  According to Kindergarten-Primary Magazine she was back at work in March 1915 after giving birth to her son Hans on October 31, 1914.  She taught at Tottenville High School on Staten Island and lived so close by that she would go home at recess to nurse.  Lora employed a nurse to watch her son, explaining “I love my work and would not give it up unless I had to.  I get along very well and am much better and happier than I would be doing housework, which I hate.”

"The story of the Irish in America, of those millions of Americans who trace their ancestry back to the Emerald Isle, is typical of so many American immigrants, yet is also uniquely influenced by the rich culture of Ireland. Like so many of our forebears, they came to this land seeking a better future. In the process of becoming Americans, they changed themselves, changed America, and changed the world."

President Bill Clinton.  Proclamation 6533.  March 6, 1993

March is Irish-American Heritage Month!

(via ourpresidents)

A birthday letter to Alice Frank from her granddaughter Anne, age 9.
The letter above is part of a collection of Frank family memorabilia which was recently donated to Frankfurt’s Jewish Museum by Bernhard “Buddy” Elias, Anne’s closest living relative.
You can read the interview with Buddy Elias and see more images from the collection at Spiegel Online (in English, in German).

A birthday letter to Alice Frank from her granddaughter Anne, age 9.

The letter above is part of a collection of Frank family memorabilia which was recently donated to Frankfurt’s Jewish Museum by Bernhard “Buddy” Elias, Anne’s closest living relative.

You can read the interview with Buddy Elias and see more images from the collection at Spiegel Online (in English, in German).

Becoming Marie Antoinette is the first in a planned trilogy of historical fiction novels by Juliet Grey.  This first book covers Marie Antoinette’s life up until her eighteenth birthday with half the story taking place in Austria.  I knew the basic outline of Marie Antoinette’s life before reading this book, but I’d never really thought about what her childhood in Austria was like. While I was aware of the difficulties Marie Antoinette faced in her transition from Archduchess to Dauphine, I had no idea the amount of intense training she underwent in Austria to make her more palatable to the French (including braces!). 
Unlike the last book I recommended (Flygirl), Becoming Marie Antoinette is adult rather than young adult historical fiction.  However, I think Becoming Marie Antoinette would appeal to a lot of young adult readers thanks to the princess in training storyline.  This book is also an obvious must read for any Marie Antoinette fangirls out there.

Becoming Marie Antoinette is the first in a planned trilogy of historical fiction novels by Juliet Grey.  This first book covers Marie Antoinette’s life up until her eighteenth birthday with half the story taking place in Austria.  I knew the basic outline of Marie Antoinette’s life before reading this book, but I’d never really thought about what her childhood in Austria was like. While I was aware of the difficulties Marie Antoinette faced in her transition from Archduchess to Dauphine, I had no idea the amount of intense training she underwent in Austria to make her more palatable to the French (including braces!). 

Unlike the last book I recommended (Flygirl), Becoming Marie Antoinette is adult rather than young adult historical fiction.  However, I think Becoming Marie Antoinette would appeal to a lot of young adult readers thanks to the princess in training storyline.  This book is also an obvious must read for any Marie Antoinette fangirls out there.

timetravelwillbepossible:

Through bombs and  sirens, the Windmill Theatre carried on providing music, revue, and  ballet performances for the people of wartime London. The artists sleep  on mattresses in their dressing rooms, living and eating on the  premises. Here, a scene behind the scenes shows one of the girls having a  wash while the others sleep soundly surrounded by their picturesque  costumes, after the show on September 24, 1940, in London.

timetravelwillbepossible:

Through bombs and sirens, the Windmill Theatre carried on providing music, revue, and ballet performances for the people of wartime London. The artists sleep on mattresses in their dressing rooms, living and eating on the premises. Here, a scene behind the scenes shows one of the girls having a wash while the others sleep soundly surrounded by their picturesque costumes, after the show on September 24, 1940, in London.

Embroidered sampler, 1795Mary JonesPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania
On view at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (NYC), Gallery 727

This sampler is one of a small group created in Philadelphia during the second half of the eighteenth century. Known as Dresden-work samplers, they are made of white linen decorated with white drawnwork and needlepoint-lace insertions. Unlike most examples, which are entirely white, Mary Jones ornamented her piece with a colorful floral border. A circle of gold leaf inserted behind the central circle of lace further highlights her intricate work.

Embroidered sampler, 1795
Mary Jones
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

On view at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (NYC), Gallery 727

This sampler is one of a small group created in Philadelphia during the second half of the eighteenth century. Known as Dresden-work samplers, they are made of white linen decorated with white drawnwork and needlepoint-lace insertions. Unlike most examples, which are entirely white, Mary Jones ornamented her piece with a colorful floral border. A circle of gold leaf inserted behind the central circle of lace further highlights her intricate work.
chicagohistorymuseum:

Women’s suffrage parade, Grace Wilbur Trout leading women holding flags north on South Michigan Avenue, 1914.
Want a copy of this photo?> Visit our Rights and Reproductions Department and give them this number: DN-0062630.

Grace Wilbur Trout was president of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association and a well known suffrage advocate.  Like many suffrage advocates, she traveled widely, giving speeches in small towns.  
The Joliet (Illinois) Herald described one of her speeches as follows:

Farmers cheer noted suffragist, and with standing room at a premium in the Lincoln theater this afternoon, women and men packed in tight to hear Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout, one of the foremost women in America.

The Danville (Illinois) News called Grace:

one of the ablest speakers among the suffragists- brilliant, magnetic, charming- she is a born leader.

chicagohistorymuseum:

Women’s suffrage parade, Grace Wilbur Trout leading women holding flags north on South Michigan Avenue, 1914.

Want a copy of this photo?
> Visit our Rights and Reproductions Department and give them this number: DN-0062630.

Grace Wilbur Trout was president of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association and a well known suffrage advocate.  Like many suffrage advocates, she traveled widely, giving speeches in small towns.  

The Joliet (Illinois) Herald described one of her speeches as follows:

Farmers cheer noted suffragist, and with standing room at a premium in the Lincoln theater this afternoon, women and men packed in tight to hear Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout, one of the foremost women in America.

The Danville (Illinois) News called Grace:

one of the ablest speakers among the suffragists- brilliant, magnetic, charming- she is a born leader.

Women members of the central executive committee, Dagestan, North Caucasus, USSR.    

Women members of the central executive committee, Dagestan, North Caucasus, USSR.    

March is Women’s History Month

…but it is always Women’s History Month for Cool Chicks from History.

Photos from previous posts: Marie Bottineau BaldwinÉlisabeth Louise Vigée Le BrunCommander Adelaide SinclairSadie Tanner Mossell AlexanderSor Juana de la Cruz, and Private Harriet Lum.


The six plane factories of the Douglas Aircraft Company have been termed an industrial melting pot, since men and women of fifty-eight national origins work side by side in pushing Americas’s plane output. S. O. Porter, Douglas director of personnel, recently declared that Negros are doing an outstanding job in all plants. Luedell Mitchell and Lavada Cherry are shown in the El Segundo Plant of the Douglas Aircraft Company.

The six plane factories of the Douglas Aircraft Company have been termed an industrial melting pot, since men and women of fifty-eight national origins work side by side in pushing Americas’s plane output. S. O. Porter, Douglas director of personnel, recently declared that Negros are doing an outstanding job in all plants. Luedell Mitchell and Lavada Cherry are shown in the El Segundo Plant of the Douglas Aircraft Company.

wiscohisto:

Edith Head, sketch for a costume for the film Anything Goes, 1956.
Oscar-winning costume designer Edith Head didn’t hail from Wisconsin, but her papers are archived in Madison by the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research. This archive consists of costume sketches for 55 films, including All About Eve, Sabrina, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, and Vertigo.
via: Liz Ellcessor, “Edith Head Papers 1934-1965,” Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research

wiscohisto:

Edith Head, sketch for a costume for the film Anything Goes, 1956.

Oscar-winning costume designer Edith Head didn’t hail from Wisconsin, but her papers are archived in Madison by the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research. This archive consists of costume sketches for 55 films, including All About Eve, Sabrina, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, and Vertigo.

via: Liz Ellcessor, “Edith Head Papers 1934-1965,” Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research

Lance Corporal Felicia A. Lynch, US Marine Corps.
Year unknown, prior to 1981.

Lance Corporal Felicia A. Lynch, US Marine Corps.

Year unknown, prior to 1981.