todaysdocument:

Suffragettes Pardoned

Bastille Day spells prison for sixteen suffragettes who picketed the White House. Miss Julia Hurlbut of Morristown, New Jersey, leading the sixteen members of the National Womans Party who participated in the picketing demonstration in front of the White House, Washington, District of Columbia, July 14,1917, which led to their arrest. These sixteen women were sent to the workhouse at Occoquan, on July 17, 1917, upon their refusal to pay fines of $25 each, but were pardoned on July 19, 1917.

todaysdocument:

Suffragettes Pardoned

Bastille Day spells prison for sixteen suffragettes who picketed the White House. Miss Julia Hurlbut of Morristown, New Jersey, leading the sixteen members of the National Womans Party who participated in the picketing demonstration in front of the White House, Washington, District of Columbia, July 14,1917, which led to their arrest. These sixteen women were sent to the workhouse at Occoquan, on July 17, 1917, upon their refusal to pay fines of $25 each, but were pardoned on July 19, 1917.

(Source: research.archives.gov)

Group of suffragettes, 1916.

Group of suffragettes, 1916.

Japanese suffragists, 1927.

Japanese suffragists, 1927.

c. 1920 Suffrage FlyerMissouri Historical Society Collections

c. 1920 
Suffrage Flyer
Missouri Historical Society Collections

"Cautious, careful people, always casting about to preserve their reputation and social standing, never can bring about a reform. Those who are really in earnest must be willing to be anything or nothing in the world’s estimation."

— Susan B. Anthony, 1860.

(Source: books.google.com)

oupacademic:


Women arranged in orderly lines rebutted the argument that the fairer sex did not want the vote. Women in public spaces testified to the disruption of the ancient folklore that women should remain in the home. To march visually undermined the longstanding tenet that women were destined to home and domesticity, there to preside with piety and chastity, while men dealt with public affairs. Indeed it was the claim of some suffragists that women could clean up dirty politics — hence their white dresses. By carrying heavy banners embossed with their slogans, women negated the claim that they were too fragile to participate in manly politics.

Jean Baker on the New York women’s suffrage parade in October 1915. 

oupacademic:

Women arranged in orderly lines rebutted the argument that the fairer sex did not want the vote. Women in public spaces testified to the disruption of the ancient folklore that women should remain in the home. To march visually undermined the longstanding tenet that women were destined to home and domesticity, there to preside with piety and chastity, while men dealt with public affairs. Indeed it was the claim of some suffragists that women could clean up dirty politics — hence their white dresses. By carrying heavy banners embossed with their slogans, women negated the claim that they were too fragile to participate in manly politics.

Jean Baker on the New York women’s suffrage parade in October 1915. 

Serafina Dávalos (1883-1957)
Art by Molly Bergstrom (tumblr)
Serafina qualified as a teacher at 15*, completed her bachelor’s degree at 19, and earned her law degree at 24.  She was the first female attorney in Paraguay and the first Paraguayan woman to complete a doctoral degree.  Her doctoral thesis critiqued the use of biology to support sexism and advocated for the emancipation of women.  Just one year after she qualified as an attorney, Serafina served on the Supreme Court (1908-1909).  No other woman served on the Paraguayan judiciary until 1980.
In addition to her legal work, Serafina founded a commercial high school for girls and represented Paraguay at international women’s rights conferences.  
Serafina is considered Paraguay’s first feminist.  She died in 1957, four years before Paraguay granted women the right to vote.  In 1998, she became the first woman honored on a Paraguayan postage stamp.
*For comparison, Laura Ingalls Wilder qualified as a teacher at 15, sixteen years before Serafina.  Both were very young teachers, but at the time teachers were not expected to have a university degree so is more akin to someone today completing their degree and qualifying as a teacher at 20.

Serafina Dávalos (1883-1957)

Art by Molly Bergstrom (tumblr)

Serafina qualified as a teacher at 15*, completed her bachelor’s degree at 19, and earned her law degree at 24.  She was the first female attorney in Paraguay and the first Paraguayan woman to complete a doctoral degree.  Her doctoral thesis critiqued the use of biology to support sexism and advocated for the emancipation of women.  Just one year after she qualified as an attorney, Serafina served on the Supreme Court (1908-1909).  No other woman served on the Paraguayan judiciary until 1980.

In addition to her legal work, Serafina founded a commercial high school for girls and represented Paraguay at international women’s rights conferences.  

Serafina is considered Paraguay’s first feminist.  She died in 1957, four years before Paraguay granted women the right to vote.  In 1998, she became the first woman honored on a Paraguayan postage stamp.

*For comparison, Laura Ingalls Wilder qualified as a teacher at 15, sixteen years before Serafina.  Both were very young teachers, but at the time teachers were not expected to have a university degree so is more akin to someone today completing their degree and qualifying as a teacher at 20.

Matilde Hidalgo de Procel (1889-1974)
Art by Martha Han (tumblr)
In a time when most Ecuadorian girls completed their education in sixth grade, Matilde petitioned to attend high school.  With the support of her family and the local principal, she was offered a place at Colegio Bernardo Valdivieso, the oldest school in Ecuador.  Many members of the community objected, but despite their ostracization, Matilde became the first Ecuadorian girl to graduate high school in 1913.  She went on to study at the University of Cuenca and graduated as Ecuador’s first female physican in 1921.
During the presidency of José Luis Tamayo, Matilde announced her plans to vote in the next presidential election.  She petitioned the government and they ruled in her favor, allowing her to vote in the 1924 elections.  Women’s suffrage was written into the Constitution that same year.
Matilde went on to run for election, serving as the first elected councilwoman of Machala and the first vice-president of the Council of Machala. In 1941, she became the first female candidate and the first woman elected public administrator in Loja, the city that had once ostracized her for attending high school.

Matilde Hidalgo de Procel (1889-1974)

Art by Martha Han (tumblr)

In a time when most Ecuadorian girls completed their education in sixth grade, Matilde petitioned to attend high school.  With the support of her family and the local principal, she was offered a place at Colegio Bernardo Valdivieso, the oldest school in Ecuador.  Many members of the community objected, but despite their ostracization, Matilde became the first Ecuadorian girl to graduate high school in 1913.  She went on to study at the University of Cuenca and graduated as Ecuador’s first female physican in 1921.

During the presidency of José Luis Tamayo, Matilde announced her plans to vote in the next presidential election.  She petitioned the government and they ruled in her favor, allowing her to vote in the 1924 elections.  Women’s suffrage was written into the Constitution that same year.

Matilde went on to run for election, serving as the first elected councilwoman of Machala and the first vice-president of the Council of Machala. In 1941, she became the first female candidate and the first woman elected public administrator in Loja, the city that had once ostracized her for attending high school.

Felisa Rincón de Gautier (1897-1994)
Art by Amanda (tumblr)
Felisa Rincón de Gautier was the first woman elected mayor of a capital city in the Americas.  The oldest of nine children, Felisa worked as a pharmacist, clothing retailer, and florist before entering politics.  Felisa was a proponent of women’s suffrage and when the Puerto Rican voter rolls opened to literate women in 1929, she was the fifth woman to register.  In 1940, she married Puerto Rican politician Genaro Gautier.
Felisa was appointed mayor of San Juan in 1949.  She repeatedly won reelection, serving as mayor until her retirement in 1969.  Felisa worked to restore Old San Juan, established aid centers for the poor, improved sanitation, and created a Civil Defense system during the Cold War.  Healthcare and child welfare were particular focuses of her administration.  Felisa renovated hospitals and created clinics in low resource areas.  She created Las Escuelas Maternales, preschool centers that served as a model for the US the Head Start program.  In 1952, 1953, and 1954, Felisa had planeloads of snow brought to San Juan so that children could see snow for the first time. 
After her retirement, Felisa served as a Goodwill Ambassador from the US to Latin America.  In 1992, Felisa served as the oldest delegate at the Democratic Convention nominating Bill Clinton for President. 

Felisa’s home in San Juan is now a museum.  In New York City, where Felisa briefly lived, both an elementary school and a high school are named in her honor.

Felisa Rincón de Gautier (1897-1994)

Art by Amanda (tumblr)

Felisa Rincón de Gautier was the first woman elected mayor of a capital city in the Americas.  The oldest of nine children, Felisa worked as a pharmacist, clothing retailer, and florist before entering politics.  Felisa was a proponent of women’s suffrage and when the Puerto Rican voter rolls opened to literate women in 1929, she was the fifth woman to register.  In 1940, she married Puerto Rican politician Genaro Gautier.

Felisa was appointed mayor of San Juan in 1949.  She repeatedly won reelection, serving as mayor until her retirement in 1969.  Felisa worked to restore Old San Juan, established aid centers for the poor, improved sanitation, and created a Civil Defense system during the Cold War.  Healthcare and child welfare were particular focuses of her administration.  Felisa renovated hospitals and created clinics in low resource areas.  She created Las Escuelas Maternales, preschool centers that served as a model for the US the Head Start program.  In 1952, 1953, and 1954, Felisa had planeloads of snow brought to San Juan so that children could see snow for the first time. 

After her retirement, Felisa served as a Goodwill Ambassador from the US to Latin America.  In 1992, Felisa served as the oldest delegate at the Democratic Convention nominating Bill Clinton for President. 

Felisa’s home in San Juan is now a museum.  In New York City, where Felisa briefly lived, both an elementary school and a high school are named in her honor.

Google Doodle celebrating the 153rd birthday of Jane Addams.
Jane Addams was one of the best known social justice activists of the early 20th century.  A suffragette, she emphasized the importance of women in creating positive communities.  Jane also advocated for children, immigrants, ethnic minorities, and workers.  Jane pioneered the settlement movement, founding Hull House in Chicago, the US’s first settlement house. Hull House provided education for adults and children, as well as social and artistic programming.  Jane fought for better sanitation programs and against government corruption.  Her work influenced social reformers worldwide and contributed to the development of professional social work. Jane was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her work promoting the preservation of peace worldwide.
For more information: Stuff You Missed in History Class's recent two part podcast on Jane Addams.

Google Doodle celebrating the 153rd birthday of Jane Addams.

Jane Addams was one of the best known social justice activists of the early 20th century.  A suffragette, she emphasized the importance of women in creating positive communities.  Jane also advocated for children, immigrants, ethnic minorities, and workers.  Jane pioneered the settlement movement, founding Hull House in Chicago, the US’s first settlement house. Hull House provided education for adults and children, as well as social and artistic programming.  Jane fought for better sanitation programs and against government corruption.  Her work influenced social reformers worldwide and contributed to the development of professional social work. Jane was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her work promoting the preservation of peace worldwide.

For more information: Stuff You Missed in History Class's recent two part podcast on Jane Addams.

Suffrage straw ride in Yonkers, New York on August 30, 1913.
The suffragettes were on their way to city hall to give the mayor tickets to their upcoming event.

Suffrage straw ride in Yonkers, New York on August 30, 1913.

The suffragettes were on their way to city hall to give the mayor tickets to their upcoming event.

uspsstamps:

It’s Women’s Equality Day. On this day in 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, which granted women the right to vote, went into effect. Today we celebrate this historic milestone, as well as ongoing efforts toward full equality.

uspsstamps:

It’s Women’s Equality Day. On this day in 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, which granted women the right to vote, went into effect. Today we celebrate this historic milestone, as well as ongoing efforts toward full equality.

A group of suffragettes from Oregon visiting New York City before meeting with President Wilson in Washington, DC. 
1912

A group of suffragettes from Oregon visiting New York City before meeting with President Wilson in Washington, DC. 

1912

National Woman’s Party group
September 6, 1922
After the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920, the National Woman’s Party turned its attention to eliminating other forms of gender discrimination through the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).  The ERA never passed, but many of its goals were achieved by the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

National Woman’s Party group

September 6, 1922

After the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920, the National Woman’s Party turned its attention to eliminating other forms of gender discrimination through the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).  The ERA never passed, but many of its goals were achieved by the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Hat tip to Amo Librorum for pointing out this anniversary.